stilizirana Slovenija

NATURA SLOVENIAE

Revija za terensko biologijo • Journal of Field Biology

2015
Letnik 17 • Volume 17


Številka 1 • Issue 1

Houshang NOSRATI, Adam H. PRICE, Pedro GERSTBERGER, Chris C. WILCOCK
Characterization of an allotriploid strawberry Fragaria × bifera Duchesne (Rosaceae) from Europe. (EN) Karakterizacija alotriploidne jagode Fragaria × bifera Duchesne (Rosaceae) iz Evrope.
Natura Sloveniae 17(1): 5-15
Izvleček • Abstract | PDF Celoten članek • Full text

Abstract. Allopolyploidy has played an important role in the plant evolution. To assess its role in speciation, it is necessary to examine fertility and crossability of hybrids. A hybrid clone of the genus Fragaria with different and complex morphology compared to F. vesca, F. viridis and F. moschata, was detected in Germany (in Bayreuth, Bavaria). The genome size of these plants was measured using flow cytometry and their fertility was tested in experimental crossing. The parental origin of the hybrid was revealed using RAPD approach. From the mean intensity of fluorescence emitted by PI-stained nuclei for F. moschata, F. vesca, F. viridis and the hybrid, triploidy of the hybrid could be indicated. The hybrid shared an 1800bp and 880bp long species-specific RAPDs bands with F. viridis and F. vesca, respectively, indicating them as the parental species of the hybrid. The hybrid did not produce any fruit in selfing, open pollination and when crossed by pollen of F. vesca and F. viridis, all showing female sterility of the hybrid. The hybrid had 78% pollen sterility, however, pollinating F. vesca by pollen of the hybrid produced viable seed and F1 plants, indicating its male fertility. This work shows allopolyploidy role in the evolution and speciation of Fragaria, and may suggest the study site as potential new centre of Fragaria speciation.

Key words: allopolyploidy, allotripolyploid strawberry, Fragaria, Fragaria × bifera, strawberry genome content

Izvleček. Alopoliploidija ima pomembno vlogo v evoluciji rastlin. Kljub temu je za potrditev njene vloge pri speciaciji potrebno poznati plodnost in možnost križanja pri hibridih. V Nemčiji (Bayreuth, Bavarska) najden hibridni klon rodu Fragaria izkazuje drugačno in kompleksnejšo morfologijo kot vrste F. vesca, F. viridis in F. moschata, zato smo v analizi njegovega izvora uporabili molekulske pristope. Starševski izvor hibridov smo tako ugotavljali z metodo RAPD. Velikost genoma teh rastlin smo merili s pretočno citometrijo, plodnost hibridov pa smo testirali z eksperimentalnim križanjem. Povprečna intenziteta fluorescence F. moschata, F. vesca, F. viridis in hibrida, merjena s pretočno citometrijo, nakazuje triploidijo hibrida. Delitev 1800 in 880 bp dolgih vrstno specifičnih RAPD pasov z F. viridis in F. vesca pa nakazuje, da sta ti dve vrsti starševski hibridu. Hibrid ni proizvajal plodov pri samooploditvi, odprti oploditvi ali če je bil križan s pelodom F. vesca in F. viridis, kar nakazuje sterilnost ženskih hibridov. Hibridi so imeli 78 % sterilnost peloda, opraševanje F. vesca s pelodom hibrida pa je rezultiralo v viabilnih semenih in F1 rastlinah, kar nakazuje na moško plodnost. Delo kaže na pomen alopoliploidije v evoluciji in speciaciji rodu Fragaria ter nakazuje možnost, da je lokacija študije nov center speciacije za rod Fragaria.

Ključne besede: alopoliploidija, alotripoliploidna jagoda, Fragaria, Fragaria × bifera, genom jagode

Lovrenc LIPEJ, Borut MAVRIČ, Domen TRKOV
First records of two Cuthona species (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia) in the Adriatic Sea. (EN) Prvi zapis o pojavljanju dveh vrst iz rodu Cuthona (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia) v Jadranskem morju.
Natura Sloveniae 17(1): 17-24
Izvleček • Abstract | PDF Celoten članek • Full text

Abstract. Authors are reporting on the first records of two nudibranch species of the genus Cuthona in the Slovenian part of the Adriatic Sea. In the period from September 2014 to March 2015, specimens of Cuthona genovae and C. miniostriata were found at different localities in the mediolittoral and upper infralittoral belts. The findings of both Cuthona species represent the first records in the Adriatic Sea.

Key words: first records, Cuthona genovae, Cuthona miniostriata, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia, Adriatic Sea

Izvleček. Avtorji poročajo o prvi najdbi dveh vrst polžev gološkrgarjev iz rodu Cuthona v slovenskem delu Jadranskega morja. V obdobju od septembra 2014 do marca 2015 so bili v mediolitoralu in zgornjem infralitoralu na različnih lokalitetah najdeni primerki vrst Cuthona genovae in C. miniostriata. To je tudi prvi zapis o pojavljanju obeh vrst iz rodu Cuthona v Jadranskem morju.

Ključne besede: prvi zapisi, Cuthona genovae, Cuthona miniostriata, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia, Jadransko morje

Philippe THÉOU, Ervis LOCE, Marina ĐUROVIĆ
Results of the pioneer survey of potential bat hibernacula in Albania (2012–2015). (EN) Rezultati prvih popisov možnih prezimovališč netopirjev v Albaniji (2012-2015).
Natura Sloveniae 17(1): 25-40
Izvleček • Abstract | PDF Celoten članek • Full text

Abstract. For the first time at a national scale in Albania, a winter bat population census in potential hibernacula has been implemented during the four winters (early 2012, 2012/2013, 2013/2014 and 2014/15). 178 potential hibernation sites have been visited. During the visits of natural caves, bunkers, tunnels, buildings and mines we recorded at least 9 bat species: Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (28 sites), R. hipposideros (36 sites), R. blasii (1 site), R. euryale (3 sites), Myotis myotis/oxygnatus (blythii) (4 sites), M. capaccinii (6 sites), Pipistrellus sp. (2 sites), Hypsugo savii (1 site) and Miniopterus schreibersii (9 sites). The data presented are substantial additions to knowledge on the distribution of these species and their roosts in Albania, and will form a basis for bat population monitoring and, at the same time, for improving conservation measures in Albania and the wider region.

Key words: Albania, bats, Chiroptera, hibernacula, monitoring, survey

Izvleček. V štirih zimah (začetek 2012, 2012/2013, 2013/2014 in 014/15) je bil v Albaniji prvič na državnem nivoju opravljen popis prezimujočih netopirjev. Pregledanih je bilo 178 možnih prezimovališč. Med obiski naravnih jam, bunkerjev, tunelov, zgradb in rudnikov je bilo opaženih najmanj 9 vrst netopirjev: Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (28 lokacij), R. hipposideros (36 lokacij), R. blasii (1 lokacija), R. euryale (3 lokacije), Myotis myotis/oxygnatus (blythii) (4 lokacije), M. capaccinii (6 lokacij), Pipistrellus sp. (2 lokaciji), Hypsugo savii (1 lokacija) in Miniopterus schreibersii (9 lokacij). Predstavljeni rezultati v veliki meri prispevajo k poznavanju razširjenosti teh vrst in njihovih zatočišč v Albaniji ter bodo osnova za monitoring populacij netopirjev in za izboljšanje ohranitvenih ukrepov tako v Albaniji kot v širši regiji.

Ključne besede: Albanija, netopirji, Chiroptera, prezimovališča, monitoring, raziskava

Primož PRESETNIK, Tea KNAPIČ
First confirmations of the greater noctule bat Nyctalus lasiopterus (Schreber, 1780) presence in Slovenia after more than 85 years. (EN) Prve potrditve prisotnosti velikega mračnika Nyctalus lasiopterus (Schreber, 1780) v Sloveniji po več kot 85 letih.
Natura Sloveniae 17(1): 41-46
Izvleček • Abstract | PDF Celoten članek • Full text

Abstract. During a transect count using ultrasound detectors within the framework of the national bat monitoring scheme, three foraging Nyctalus lasiopterus were observed on 27. 6. 2014, and eventually confirmed by an analysis of their echolocation calls recorded in the forest clearing Šetinov laz near the hamlet of Leskova dolina close to Mt. Snežnik in southern Slovenia. The re-examination of recordings made at the same site during 15 other transect counts in the 2007–2014 period revealed that N. lasiopterus was also present there on 14. 10. 2013. These observations are the first confirmations of this rare species’ occurrence in over 85 years, and opens up questions about the regular presence of N. lasiopterus in Slovenia.

Key words: Nyctalus lasiopterus, foraging area, echolocation, Slovenia

Izvleček. 27. 6. 2014 sva v okviru državnega monitoringa netopirjev med transektnim popisom netopirjev z ultrazvočnim detektorjem na gozdni jasi Šetinov laz pri zaselku Leskova dolina blizu gore Snežnik v južni Sloveniji opazila tri prehranjujoče se velike mračnike Nyctalus lasiopterus in določitev vrste kasneje potrdila z analizo posnetkov njihovih eholokacijskih klicev. Ko sva pregledala posnetke, narejene med 15 ostalimi popisi na isti lokaciji v letih 2007–2014, sva ugotovila, da je bil veliki mračnik tam zagotovo prisoten tudi med popisom 14. 10. 2013. To so prva opazovanja te redke vrste po več kot 85 letih, ki odpirajo vprašanje, ali so veliki mračniki redno prisotni v Sloveniji.

Ključne besede: Nyctalus lasiopterus, prehranjevališče, eholokacija, Slovenija

Anja PEKOLJ, Behare REXHEPI, Tina UREK, Urban DAJČMAN, Katarina DRAŠLER, Anamarija ŽAGAR, Gregor LIPOVŠEK, Marijan GOVEDIČ
First record of the European pond turtle Emys orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758) near Kočevje, SE Slovenia. (EN) Prva najdba močvirske sklednice Emys orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758) pri Kočevju, JV Slovenija.
Natura Sloveniae 17(1): 47-48
PDF Terenska notica • Field note

Slađana GVOZDENOVIĆ, Nikola ČAVOR
First record of dicephalism in the four-lined snake Elaphe quatuorlineata Lacépede, 1789 (Serpentes: Colubridae) from Montenegro. (EN) Prva najdba dvoglavega primerka progastega goža (Elaphe quatorlineata) v Črni Gori.
Natura Sloveniae 17(1): 49-50
PDF Terenska notica • Field note

Številka 2 • Issue 2

Nataša MORI
Recent ostracods (Crustacea: Ostracoda) of Alpine springs and adjacent springbrooks of the Southern Limestone Alps, Slovenia. (EN) Recentni dvoklopniki (Crustacea: Ostracoda) v alpskih izvirih in izvirskih potokih Južnih Apneniških Alp v Sloveniji.
Natura Sloveniae 17(2): 5-16
Izvleček • Abstract | PDF Celoten članek • Full text

Abstract. The ecology and distribution of ostracods in Alpine springs and springbrooks from Slovenia is presented. Benthos sampling was performed and major environmental characteristics (discharge, substrate composition, temperature, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH, alkalinity, sulphate, nitrate, calcium, magnesium) were measured in 12 springs and adjacent springbrooks. Sampling campaign was carried out on six sampling occasions (spring, summer, autumn in 2009 and 2010). Fourteen ostracod species were found among other fauna. The commonest and most abundant species were Psychrodromus fontinalis (Wolf, 1920) and Cavernocypris subterranea (Wolf, 1920), while the other species occurred at one or two sites at the most. Substrate composition and water temperature were statistically significant variables in explaining ostracod assemblages composition in this study.

Key words: microcrustacea, species-environment relationship, biodiversity, distribution

Izvleček. Prispevek predstavi ekologijo in razširjenost dvoklopnikov (Ostracoda) v alpskih izvirih in izvirskih potokih Slovenije. Vzorčenje bentosa in meritve okoljskih dejavnikov smo opravili spomladi, poleti in jeseni v letih 2009 in 2010 v 12 izvirih in izvirskih potokih. Najdenih je bilo 14 vrst dvoklopnikov. Najbolj pogosti in številčni sta bili vrsti Psychrodromus fontinalis (Wolf, 1920) in Cavernocypris subterranea (Wolf, 1920). Druge vrste so se pojavljale posamično, na eni ali dveh lokacijah. Sestava substrata in temperatura vode sta bila edina statistično značilna okoljska dejavnika, ki sta določala sestavo združbe dvoklopnikov.

Ključne besede: nižji raki, odnos med vrstami in okoljem, biodiverziteta, distribucija

Matjaž JEŽ, Valerija ZAKŠEK, Radovan ŠTANTA, Bojan ZADRAVEC, Rudi VEROVNIK
Favna nočnih metuljev (Lepidoptera) na izbranih osvetljenih cerkvah v Sloveniji. (SL) Moth fauna (Lepidoptera) at selected illuminated churches in Slovenia.
Natura Sloveniae 17(2): 17-45
Izvleček • Abstract | PDF Celoten članek • Full text

Izvleček. Negativni vpliv svetlobnega onesnaževanja na nočne metulje je znan, vendar premalo raziskan pojav. V letih 2011–2013 smo na 15 izbranih cerkvah v različnih biogeografskih regijah Slovenije in na Koči na Sabotinu preučevali nočne metulje na osvetljenih delih fasad. Skupno smo zabeležili 609 vrst nočnih metuljev, kar je približno 20 % vseh v Sloveniji živečih vrst metuljev. Največ vrst je bilo najdenih na Koritnem na Pohorju (214 vrst) in na Koči na Sabotinu (213 vrst). Na tej lokaciji je bilo ugotovljenih tudi največ ogroženih vrst metuljev v Sloveniji, in sicer osem od skupno 18 vrst. Glavni razlog za takšen odklon je ohranjenost habitatov v okolici osvetljenega objekta, deloma pa tudi dejstvo, da tu ni bilo svetlobnega onesnaževanja, saj objekt pred raziskavo ni bil nikoli osvetljen. Ugotavljamo, da svetlobno onesnaženje privablja veliko število vrst nočnih metuljev, zato bi ga bilo treba ustrezno omejiti; tako z ustrezno zakonodajo kot tudi v praksi. V prispevku podajamo natančnejše podatke o razširjenosti nekaterih redkih vrst, zbranih pred in med to raziskavo.

Ključne besede: ogroženost, svetlobno onesnaževanje, favnistična analiza, Lepidoptera, nočni metulji, Slovenija

Abstract. The negative impact of light pollution on moths is a well-known but under-studied phenomenon. In the 2011-2013 period, the moth fauna on illuminated parts of facades on 15 selected churches from different biogeographical regions of Slovenia and at a mountain cottage on Sabotin hill was studied. In total, 609 species of moths were recorded, which is approximately 20% of all moth species known from Slovenia. The largest number of species was recorded at Koritno in Pohorje Mts (214 species) and at the mountain hut on Sabotin (213 species). This location also hosted the largest number of threatened moth species in Slovenia, as eight out of the total of 18 species were recorded there. The main reason for such diversity is presence of undisturbed habitats in the vicinity, and partly absence of light pollution, as the hut had never been illuminated prior to our survey. Our observations confirm that the light pollution affects large number of moth species and should therefore be limited by suitable legislation and carried out in practice. In addition, we provide data on distribution of some rare species found during the survey and before.

Key words: threat status, light pollution, faunistic analysis, Lepidoptera, moths, Slovenia

Toni KOREN, Boris LAUŠ
The Grecian anomalous blue Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) aroaniensis (Brown, 1976) (Lepidoptera: Lycaneidae) discovered in Croatia, at the north-western edge of its distribution. (EN) Modrin Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) aroaniensis (Brown, 1976) (Lepidoptera: Lycaneidae) najden na Hrvaškem, na severozahodni meji njegove razširjenosti.
Natura Sloveniae 17(2): 47-57
Izvleček • Abstract | PDF Celoten članek • Full text

Abstract. In 2014 and 2015, a survey to improve the knowledge about the distribution of butterflies of the subgenus Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) was carried out in southern Croatia. The first observations of a new species for the country, P. aroaniensis, were made. These localities present the northwesternmost points of the species distribution, with the closest known population occurring in Bosnia and Herzegovina. New localities for the three species, P. admetus, P. damon, and P. ripartii, were also recorded, extending the range of the latter two species. Our findings increase the number of recorded butterfly species in Croatia to 197.

Key words: Lika, Croatia, Lepidoptera, Lycaneidae, Polyommatus, Agrodiaetus, new records

Izvleček. V letih 2014 in 2015 smo raziskovali razširjenost metuljev podrodu Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) v južnem delu Hrvaške. Prvič smo zabeležili vrsto P. aroaniensis. Te lokalitete ležijo na najbolj severozahodnem delu območja razširjenosti te vrste, katere naslednja najbližja populacija je znana iz Bosne in Hercegovine. Našli smo tudi nove lokalitete za tri vrste P. admetus, P. damon ter P. ripartii in tako povečali znano območje razširjenosti slednjih dveh vrst. Z našimi najdbami se je število zabeleženih vrst dnevnih metuljev na Hrvaškem povzdignilo na 197.

Ključne besede: Lika, Hrvaška, Lepidoptera, Lycaneidae, Polyommatus, Agrodiaetus, nove najdbe

Teo DELIĆ, Boris SKET
Found after 60 years: the hows and whys of Sphaeromides virei montenigrina (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cirolanidae) rediscovery in Obodska pećina, Montenegro. (EN) Najden po 60 letih: razlogi za ponovno odkritje Sphaeromides virei montenigrina (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cirolanidae) v Obodski pećini v Črni gori.
Natura Sloveniae 17(2): 59-65
Izvleček • Abstract | PDF Celoten članek • Full text

Abstract. Despite being the biggest isopod crustacean in Dinarides, little is known about the genus Sphaeromides and its taxonomical status. Sphaeromides virei montenigrina, one of the three subspecies, has been known only thanks to a female specimen found and described in the late 1950s. Despite the intensive search, almost 60 years were needed to discover additional specimens in the cave Obodska pećina, Montenegro. In this study we present a review of the possible reasons for this long lasting search.

Key words: Dinarides, Sphaeromides virei, montenigrina, stygobiont, Obodska pećina, Rijeka Crnojevića

Izvleček. Čeprav so predstavniki rodu Sphaeromides največji podzemni raki enakonožci Dinarskega krasa, je o rodu le malo znanega, taksonomski status pa je še nedodelan. Sphaeromides virei montenigrina, eno od treh podvrst, ki je bila opisana v 50-ih letih prejšnjega stoletja, smo donedavna poznali le po samici, najdeni septembra 1956. Kljub pogostemu vzorčenju je bilo potrebnih skoraj 60 let, da je bilo odkritih nekaj dodatnih osebkov v jami Obodska pećina v Črni gori. V prispevku obravnavamo morebitne razloge za to.

Ključne besede: Dinaridi, Sphaeromides virei, montenigrina, stigobiont, Obodska pećina, Rijeka Crnojevića

Saša RAJKOV, Damjan VINKO, Andrea ARANĐELOVIĆ
Faunistic results from the 2nd Balkan OdonatOlogical Meeting – BOOM 2012, Serbia. (EN) Favnistični rezultati 2. Mednarodnega srečanja odonatologov Balkana – BOOM 2012, Srbija.
Natura Sloveniae 17(2): 67-76
Izvleček • Abstract | PDF Celoten članek • Full text

Abstract. As a part of the Balkan odonatological cooperation, the 2nd Balkan OdonatOlogical Meeting (BOOM 2012) was held in Vojvodina (Serbia). Altogether, between 7. and 12. 8. 2012, 24 localities were surveyed and 34 dragonfly species found. This represents more than half of the hitherto recorded dragonfly species for the country. Significant results include the second record and a new locality of Aeshna grandis for Serbia and the first confirmation of successful reproduction of Anax ephippiger in the country. New data on several species with a comparably low number of previously published records for Vojvodina, i.e. Somatochlora meridionalis, Cordulia aenea, Gomphus flavipes, Sympetrum flaveolum, Sympetrum vulgatum and Lestes dryas, is also presented and briefly discussed.

Key words: dragonflies, Odonata, distribution, Vojvodina, Serbia, the Balkans

Izvleček. Kot del širšega balkanskega odonatološkega sodelovanja je bilo v Vojvodini (Srbija) organizirano 2. Mednarodno srečanje odonatologov Balkana (BOOM 2012). Na pregledanih 24 lokalitetah je bilo med 7. in 12. 8. 2012 popisanih 34 vrst kačjih pastirjev, kar je več kot polovica vseh znanih vrst kačjih pastirjev Srbije. Pomembnejši rezultati vključujejo drugo nahajališče rjave deve (Aeshna grandis) in prvo potrditev uspešnega razmnoževanja afriškega minljivca (Anax ephippiger) za državo. Poročamo tudi o novih nahajališčih v Vojvodini redkih vrst kačjih pastirjev. Ti so: sredozemski lesketnik (Somatochlora meridionalis), močvirski lebduh (Cordulia aenea), rumeni porečnik (Gomphus flavipes), rumeni in navadni kamenjak (Sympetrum flaveolum, Sympetrum vulgatum) in obrežna zverca (Lestes dryas).

Ključne besede: kačji pastirji, Odonata, razširjenost, Vojvodina, Srbija, Balkan

Maja ZAGMAJSTER, Luca DORIGO, Luca LAPINI
First records of European free-tailed bat Tadarida teniotis Rafinesque, 1818 (Chiroptera: Molossidae) in Friuli Venezia Giulia region in NE Italy. (EN) Prvi podatki o dolgorepem netopirju Tadarida teniotis Rafinesque, 1818 (Chiroptera: Molossidae) v Furlaniji - Julijski krajini na SV Italije.
Natura Sloveniae 17(2): 77-84
Izvleček • Abstract | PDF Celoten članek • Full text

Abstract. The European free-tailed bat Tadarida teniotis is distributed mainly in the southern part of Europe, with gaps in the currently known distribution range. During the 2014 bat detector survey in Friuli Venezia Giulia in Italy, the species was recorded for the first time in the region. It was observed at three sites in Laghetti delle Noghere Nature Reserve (ca. 600 m from the border with Slovenia), where it was also feeding, and at a site near the border with the Veneto region. With these observations, the number of all recorded bat species in Friuli Venezia Giulia increased to 30. It remains to be answered with further studies, whether T. teniotis is a regular part of the regional fauna or an occasional vagrant only.

Key words: Chiroptera, Tadarida teniotis, Friuli Venezia Giulia, first records, echolocation

Izvleček. Dolgorepi netopir Tadarida teniotis je razširjen predvsem v južnih delih Evrope, z vrzelmi v trenutno znanem območju razširjenosti. V letu 2014 smo to vrsto našli prvič v pokrajini Furlaniji Julijski krajini v Italiji med popisovanjem netopirjev z ultrazvočnimi detektorji. Zabeležili smo jo na treh mestih v naravnem rezervatu Laghetti delle Noghere (cca. 600 m od meje s Slovenijo), kjer se je tudi prehranjevala, in na enem mestu blizu meje s pokrajino Veneto. S temi opažanji se je število vrst netopirjev v Furlaniji Julijski krajini povzpelo na 30. Nadaljnje raziskave bodo pokazale, ali vrsta T. teniotis stalno živi v regiji, ali pa se tam pojavlja le občasno.

Ključne besede: Chiroptera, Tadarida teniotis, Furlanija Julijska krajina, prvi podatki, eholokacija